Signs and symptoms

There are different types of urological cancers but the main symptoms can be very general, so if you notice any of these you need to see your GP.

Below are detailed signs and symptoms of each urological cancer:

Bladder cancer

The most common symptom of bladder cancer is blood in the urine, but there can also be:

  • muscle spasms in the bladder
  • a burning pain when passing urine (although this could also be a symptom of a non-cancerous bladder infection, which is easily treated with antibiotics).

Penile cancer

The first signs of cancer of the penis are usually changes in the skin, which may show as:

  • thickening
  • growths
  • sores
  • a rash

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer generally does not cause symptoms in its early stages, but when symptoms occur they are usually:

  • difficulty and/or pain when passing urine
  • a need to pass urine more frequently particularly during the night
  • blood in the urine (haematuria)

It is important to note that these symptoms are usually connected to prostate enlargement.

(Renal) kidney cancer

Kidney cancer does not always cause symptoms, but if there are symptoms they can include:

  • blood in the urine
  • pain
  • a swelling or lump in the area of the kidney
  • fevers and night sweats
  • tiredness
  • unexplained weight loss

Testicular cancer

Early symptoms of testicular cancer are usually:

  • a lump or swelling in one testicle, which may or may not be accompanied by an ache or heavy sensation
  • occasionally there may be swelling with extreme tenderness

It is important to recognise what is normal for you and if you notice any abnormal changes then it is recommended to seek advice from your GP as soon as possible, who will in turn be able to refer you for further investigations.

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